Citation Styles and Guides


APA 7th Citation Examples

Material TypeIn-text CitationBibliography
A book(Sapolsky, 2017)Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.
Chapter in an edited book (If the chapter is from an authored book, use the book citation)(Dillard, 2020)Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 115–129). Routledge.
An article in a print journal(Weinstein, 2009)Weinstein, J. (2009). “The market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology, 104(4), 439-458. 
An article in an electronic journal (Grady et al., 2019)Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture8(3), 207–217.
A website(Bologna, 2019)Bologna, C. (2019, October 31). Why some people with anxiety love watching horror movies. HuffPost.

What is MLA Style?

MLA (Modern Language Association) style for documentation is widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature. MLA style features brief parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work. (Source: Official MLA website)

Examples of MLA Style

In-text Citation

Material TypeIn-text Citation
Author’s name in textMagny develops this argument (67-69).
Author’s name in referenceThis argument has been developed elsewhere (Magny 67-69).
Two authors’ names in referenceThe most notorious foreign lobby in Washington is the “Sugar Mafia” (Howe and Trott 134).
Quotation found in indirect or “secondhand” sourceThe philosopher Alain states that “admiration is not pleasure but a kind of attention. . .” (qtd. in Magny 66).

Creating a Works Cited Page

Material TypeWorks Cited
Book in printCard, Claudia. The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil. Oxford UP, 2005.
eBook Gaither, Milton. Homeschool: An American History. Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. SpringerLink,
An article in a print journalDoggart, Julia. “Minding the Gap: Realizing Our Ideal Community Writing Assistance Program.” The Community Literacy Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, 2007, pp. 71-80. 
An article in an electronic journalSherrard-Johnson, Cherene. “‘A Plea for Color’: Nella Larsen’s Iconography of the Mulatta.” American Literature, vol. 76, no. 4, 2004, pp. 833-869, doi: 10.1215/00029831-76-4-833.
A encyclopedia entry“Patanjali.” Benét’s Reader’s Encyclopedia, edited by Bruce Murphy, 4th ed., HarperCollins Publishers, 1996, p. 782.
A government publicationUnited States, Federal Maritime Commission. Hawaiian Trade Study: An Economic Analysis. Government Printing Office, 1978. 
An interview you conductedBrandt, Deborah. Personal interview. 28 May 2008.

(Note: List the interview under the name of the interviewee)
A film/DVDNote: This depends on the focus of your work. Please see the MLA Style blog for a  detailed explanation.
A Page on a Website with no author“Stunning Lakeside View on Lake Erie.” VisitPA, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 7 June 2018,
A Page on a Website with an authorDel Castillo, Inigo. “How Not to Kill Your Houseplants, According to Botanists.” Apartment Therapy, 29 Jan. 2020,
Artwork – from websiteSherald, Amy. Former First Lady, Michelle Obama. 2018. National Portrait Gallery,

Source: University of Pittsburgh Library System

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