Civil Service Examination Coverage: English/Logical Reasoning

The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines logic as ‘the science of reasoning, proof, thinking or inference’. In philosophy, logic (from the Greek logos, meaning word, speech or reason) is a science that deals with the principles of valid reasoning and argument.In this context, logic concerns only the reasoning process and not necessarily the end result. Thus, incorrect conclusions can be reached by so-called ‘faulty’ means if the original assumptions are faulty. There are many kinds of logic, such as fuzzy logic and constructive logic, which have different rules and different strengths and weaknesses.

A further definition of ‘logical’ is analytical or deductive, and this definition can be applied to someone who is capable of reasoning, or using reason, in an orderly, cogent fashion. It is this latter definition with which we are concerned in this chapter and all the questions can be solved using this type of thinking process.

There is no specialized knowledge required in order to solve them, just an ability to think clearly and analytically and follow a common-sense reasoning process step by step through to its conclusion.Example 1elkminkmousegibbonpantherWhich creature comes next? Is it:squirrel, tortoise, tigress, wildebeest, platypus or aardvark?

Answer: tortoise: the name of each creature commences with the letter that comes two letters in the alphabet after the last letter of the previous creature. Also, the name of each creature contains one more letter than the previous creature.

Example 2
***January February April July November April What comes next?

Answer: October: jump an extra month each time, i.e. January February (March) April (May June) July (August September October) November (December January February March) April (May June July August September) October.

Sources: Insignia Review Center – CHQ Institute Inc.

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